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RUSSIA


Brief Historical Overview Relating to Postal History


The first stamps for Russian Empire was issued on 1 January 1858. Up to 1917, they had 22 different issues.

Imperial Russian Post Offices were opened in China in Peking, Kalgan, Tientsin and Urga (Ulan Bator-Mongolia) in 1870 and in Shanghai and Chefoo by 1897.

Russian postal service operated in Crete from 1 May to 29 July 1899.

Russian Post Offices in the Turkish Empire were in operation from 1840s until 30 September 1914.

On 15 March, Tsar Nicolas II abdicated and a provisional government was formed first under Prince Lvov and from 20 July under Kerensky.

On 7 November 1917, the Bolshevik party under Lenin seized power in Petrograd.

During 1918-1922, the postal service was disorganised by revolution and civil war. All was divided by areas:

    -The Northern Army was formed in February 1919 under General Rodzianko. He captured Pskov, Gdov and Yamburg

    -General Yudenith was commander of the Anti-Bolshevist forces in the Baltic from 15 June 1919 and collapsed in November the same year

    -Colonel Avalov-Bermondt was in command of the "Western Army" formed in Courland in 1919 but evacuated from Courland on 29 November 1919

    - Admiral Kolchak was Supreme commander in Siberia from 18 November 1918 but he resigned on 4 January 1920

    -The Transbaikal Province - Ataman Semyonov seized power on 20 January 1920 and established his capital in Chita until 21 October 1920

    -The Amur Province - a communist regime established People's Revolutionary Committee at Blagoveshchensk

    -The Far Eastern Republic - On 6 April 1920 the Far Eastern republic was formed as a buffer state between the Soviets and the Japanese. It stretched from the lake Baykal to Vladivostok but on 26 May 1921 Priamur and Amur provinces broke away. On 19 November 1922 after the Japanese evacuation from Vladivostk, the Republic was annexed by Soviet Russia

    -South Russia Kuban territory - a Cossack Government. This territory was created in October 1917. On 28 August 1918, General Denikin recognised autonomy of the Kuban, which lasted until 27 March 1920

    -The Don territory - a Cossack Government. Independence of the Don territory was proclaimed on 10 January 1918 and lasted until 23 February 1920.

    -The Crimea and the Provisional Government were formed on 17 November 1918. The Soviets occupied the Crimea after the evacuation of the French troops in April 1919, but General Denikin drove them out by 29 June 1919.

    -South Russia - General Denikin was commander of the Volunteer Army from 8 October 1918. His forces captured Kiev, Orel, Voronezh and Tsaritsyn by 13 October 1919. He resigned his command to General Wrangel on 4 April 1920.

    -South Russia - General Wrangel reoccupied all Taurida Province from June to October 1929. He evacuated Sevastopol and left Russia on 15 November 1920 with a large number of civilian refugees.


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